Infeksi Nasokomial


infeksi nosokomial

31 Desember 2008 by mayuhardi

Kesehatan
yang baik tergantung sebagian pada lingkungan yang aman. Praktisi atau
teknisi yang memantau atau mencegah penularan infeksi membantu
melindungi klien dan pekerja kesehatan dari penyakit. Setiap tahun
diperkirakan 2 juta pasien mengalami infeksi saat dirawat di Rumah
Sakit. Hal ini terjadi karena pasien yang dirawat di Rumah Sakit
mempunyai daya tahan tubuh yang melemah sehingga resistensi terhadap
mikroorganisme penyebab penyakit menjadi turun, adanya peningkatan
paparan terhadap berbagai mikroorganisme dan dilakukannya prosedur
invasive terhadap pasien di Rumah Sakit. Mikroorganisme bisa eksis di
setiap tempat, dalam air, tanah, permukaan tubuh seperti kulit, saluran
pencernaan dan area terbuka lainnya. Infeksi yang di derita pasien
karena dirawat di Rumah Sakit, dimana sebelumnya pasien tidak mengalami
infeksi tersebut dinamakan infeksi nosokomial. Menurut Patricia C
Paren, pasien dikatakan mengalami infeksi nosokomial jika pada saat
masuk belum mengalami infeksi kemudian setelah dirawat selama 48-72 jam
klien menjadi terinfeksi.

syarifahlizaalatas.blog.friendster.com

 

·         Dependent variabel: Rumah sakit bukan tempat yang aman untuk terjadinya penyakit baru yang tadinya belum diderita pasien

·         Independent variabel: Rumah Sakit adalah tempat berkumpulnya berbagai macam penyakit serta segala hal yang berhubungan dengan penyakit. Oleh karena itu, pasien yang berobat ke rumah sakit oleh karena kondisi tertentu ber-resiko untuk terpapar dan bahkan menderita penyakit infeksi baru. Penyakit ini dimungkinkan terjadi oleh karena kondisi pasien yang menurun/rentan terhadap infeksi (faktor internal) dan atau karena banyaknya petugas, prosedur tindakan dan banyaknya agen penyakit dilingkungan pasien yang dapat mentrnsmisi penyakit infeksi yang didapat di RS (faktor eksternal)

      

 

 

Nosocomial infection

Nosocomial infections are infections which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patient’s original condition (and as such are a category of iatrogenic artefacts). Infections are considered nosocomial if they first appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge. Nosocomial comes from the Greek word nosokomeion (νοσοκομείον) meaning hospital (nosos = disease, komeo = to take care of). This type of infection is also known as a hospital-acquired infection (or more generically healthcare-associated infections).

Nosocomial infections are even more alarming in the 21st century. The main reason are the followings:

  • Hospitals house large numbers of people who are sick and whose immune systems are often in a weakened state;
  • Increased use of outpatient treatment means that people who are in the hospital are sicker on average;
  • Medical staff move from patient to patient, providing a way for pathogens to spread;
  • Many medical procedures bypass the body’s natural protective barriers;
  • Sanitation protocol regarding uniforms, equipment sterilization, washing, and other preventative measures may be either unheeded by hospital staff or too lax to sufficiently isolate patients from infectious agents.
  • Patients are often prescribed antibiotics and other anti-microbial drugs to help treat illness; this may increase the selection pressure for the emergence of resistant strains.

Thorough hand washing and/or use of alcohol rubs by all medical personnel before each patient contact is one of the most effective ways to combat nosocomial infections[1]. More careful use of anti-microbial agents, such as antibiotics, is also considered vital.[2]

[edit] Epidemiology

In the United States, it has been estimated that as many as one hospital patient in ten acquires a nosocomial infection, or 2 million patients a year. Estimates of the annual cost range from $4.5 billion to $11 billion and up. Nosocomial infections contributed to 88,000 deaths in the U.S. in 1995. One third of nosocomial infections are considered preventable. Ms. magazine reports that as many as 92 percent of deaths from hospital infections could be prevented. [2] The most common nosocomial infections are of the urinary tract, surgical site and various pneumonias [3]

In France, prevalence was 6.87% in 2001[4] and 7.5% in 2006[5] (some patients were infected twice) :

An estimated 5% to 19% of hospitalized patients are infected, and up to 30% in intensive care units. The patients must stay in the hospital 4-5 additional days. About 9,000 people die with a nosocomial infection, but about 4,200 would have survived without this infection.

In Italy, in the 2000s, about 6.7 % of hospitalized patients were infected, i.e. between 450,000 and 700,000 patients, which caused between 4,500 and 7,000 deaths.[6]

In Switzerland, extrapolations assume about 70,000 hospitalised patients are affected by nosocomial infections (between 2 and 14% of hospitalized patients).[7]

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nosocomial_infection

 

 

·         Dependent variabel: angka kejadian infeksi nosokomial di beberapa rumah sakit negara maju cukup tinggi dan biaya yang dibutuhkan untuk mengatasi masalah ini sangat besar.

·         Independent variabel: 1/ kejadian infeksi nosokomial dapat dikurangi dengan budaya mencuci tangan sebelum dan sesudah kontak dengan pasien, termasuk bagi pengunjung pasien. 2/ Sedapat mungkin hindari prosedur yang dapat menimbulkan resiko infeksi. 3/ Gunakan alkohol scrub setelah mencuci tangan sebelum melakukan tindakan yang invasif. 4/ Lakukan setiap tindakan dengan teknik aseptik dan antiseptik. 5/ Hindari penggunaan obat antibiotik yang tidak rasional karena akan berdampak terbunuhnya bakteri yang melindungi tubuh

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